The Monument of the People’s Heroes

The Monument of the People’s Heroes was built in memory of the martyrs who laid down their lives for the revolutionary struggle of the Chinese people in the past century. It was built in accordance with there solution of the First Plenary Session of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference adopted on November 30, 1949. Chairman Mao and other delegates laid the corner stone for the monument on that afternoon.

The 38-metre-high monument was open on July 1, 1958. It covers an area of 3,000 square metres. The stone tablet is from Qingdao, Shandong Province. On the front is an inscription in Chairman Mao’s handwriting: “Eternal glory to the people’s heroes ” On the back is the late Premier Zhou Enlai’s message: “Eternal glory to the people’s heroes who laid down their lives in the War of Liberation in the past three years and the people’s revolution in the past three decades ! Eternal glory to the people’s heroes who laid down their lives in the struggles against foreign and domestic enemies, for national independence and for the people’s freedom and happiness from 1840 onward!”

At the base of the tablet are eight-huge bas-reliefs carved out of white marble covering the revolutionary episodes.

l)Burning Opium in the Opium War in 1840.

A revolutionary movement broke out to resist the smuggling of large quantities of opium into China by the British imperialists. In June 1839, altogether 1,150,000 kilogrammes of opium was destroyed. It showed the Chinese people’s determination to struggle against imperialism and marked the beginning of their resistance.

2)The Jintian Village Uprising in Taiping Revolution

The Taiping Revolution was the biggest and longest revolutionary peasant uprising in the Chinese history. Led by Hong Xiuquan, this great anti-imperialist, anti-feudal peasant movement first broke out in Jintian Village in Guangxi in 1851. The revolutionary flames soon spread to six provinces and the revolutionaries established their capital in Nanjing.

3)Wuchang Uprising (1911 Revolution)

1911 was the year in which the decisive battle against the Manchu Government was fought. Late on the evening of October 10, the revolutionary forces wrecked the cannon in front of the office building of the governor of both Hunan and Hubei provinces, pulled down the royal flag and broke through the gate of the governor’s mansion. The first success of the revolution was at Wuhan. The last feudal dynasty collapsed under the fierce attack of the revolutionary torrent on October 10, 1911.

4)May 4th Movement

An anti-imperialist patriotic movement broke out on May 4, 1919 in Beijing. It was the turning point of the Chinese democratic revolution.
On that day, several thousand Beijing students held a rally in front of Tian’anmen. A parade followed in which participants held aloft banners inscribed “No signature to the ‘peace treaty’! ” and distributed the leaflets “Uphold our sovereignty ! Punish the traitors ! ”

5)May 30th Movement

A demonstration by Shanghai workers and students on May 30,1925 ushered in a vigorous anti-imperialist movement. Demonstrators’ banners thundered “Down with the imperialists!” and “Revenge GuZhenghong, a splendid representative of China’s workers shot down by the imperialists ! ”

6)Nanchang Uprising

Chiang Kai-shek launched a coup on April 12, 1927 and began slaughtering Communists. To save the revolution and continue struggle, the Chinese Communist Party fired the first shot at the Kuomintang reactionaries in the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927.
This was the day the Chinese Communist Party began to lead the revolutionary armed forces independently against the counter-revolutionary armed forces. Hence August 1 is the birthday of the Chinese People’s Liberation Army.

7)War of Resistance Against Japan

Armymen and civilians in the revolutionary base areas carried out Chairman Mao’s thinking on protracted war. Tie Chinese Communist Party called on the people’s army to go to the enemy’s rear to launch guerrilla warfare, mine warfare, etc. War educated the people and the people won the war.

8)Successful Crossing of the Yangtze River

This was the prelude to the liberation of the whole country. An army one million strong made a forced crossing of the Yangtze River on April 21, 1949 to overthrow the Chiang Kai-shek regime:

On the right are the masses helping the PLA men to make the crossing. On the left are the liberated Nanjing people welcoming the entrance of the PLA men. The liberation of the Kuomintang capital heralded the liberation of the whole country.

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