Beijing Great Wall

Great Wall Of ChinaBeijing Great wall, symbolizing China's ancient civilization, is one of the world's most renowned projects. It is a distance of 75 kilometres northwest of Beijing. Its highest point at Badaling is some 800 metres above sea level.

Construction of the Wall first began during the period of the War-ring States (476-221 BC). Formerly, walls were built at strategic points by different kingdoms to protect their northern territories. In221 BC after the first Emperor of the Qin Dynasty unified China, he decided to have the walls linked up and extended.

Historical records show that about one million people, one-fifth of China's population at the time, were involved in the project which took more than ten years. When it was finished we call it "Wan Li Chang Cheng which means "Ten Thousand-Li-Long Wall." Now, nature has taken over most of the Great Mall.

The Great Wall of China which we are going to visit was rebuilt during the Ming Dynasty in the 16th century. It extends from Shanhaiguan Pass, a seaport along the coast of Bohai Bay, to Jiayuguan Pass in Gansu Province. Its total length is more than 6,700 kilometres.

There were many places of strategic importance along the Wall. Fortresses were constructed at strategic points. Beacon towers were built on both sides of the Wall at commanding points. Whenever the enemy was sighted, bonfires were lit on the towers to signal warning messages.

Before the Ming Dynasty, the Wall was built mainly of earth and rock. Under the Ming, it was rebuilt in most places with bricks and stones. For instance, the section at Badaling near Beijing was faced with slabs of rock and large bricks and filled with earth and stones. It is 6 to 7 metres high.

At regular intervals along the southern side of the Wall, there are gates with stone steps leading to the top of the Wall. The top surface of the wall is paved with three or four layers of large bricks. It is 4 to 5 metres wide, enough for five horsemen to ride abreast. Along the Wall, there are parapets and battlements built of bricks and turrets and watchtowers at regular intervals.

Great Wall of China traverses mountains and gullies. It was extremely difficult to build along steep slopes under harsh conditions. Some of the slabs of rock were as long as two metres and weighed as much as one ton. All the rocks, bricks and lime had to be carried up the mountains at the cost of backbreaking labour. The earth and bricks were passed up from hand to hand or carried in baskets by donkeys and goats. The large slabs were moved up slopes by means of rolling rods and hoisting bars. According to rough calculation, the amount of bricks and rock used to build the Wall would have been enough to build a wall five metres high and one metres thick around the world.

The Badaling section is the best preserved part of the Wall. Several renovations have taken place since 1949. It is listed by the Chinese Government as one of the historical monuments to be preserved.

The Great Wall of China runs 629 kilometres in the Beijing area. More than 100 kilometres are well preserved and two other sections at Badaling and Mutianyu have already been renovated for tourists both at home and abroad.

Great Wall Of China is the great creation of ancient Chinese people. It was listed by the United Nations' Education, Science and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as one of the World heritages in 1987.

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